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用于航运的可再生燃料:到2050年80%的脱碳途径
来源:energypost.eu | 作者:沐睿环境-莉哥 | 发布时间: 2021-10-12 | 176 次浏览 | 分享到:

Renewable fuels for Shipping: an 80% decarbonisation pathway to 2050
The international shipping sector’s emission levels are comparable to Germany’s. Like aviation and heavy transport, reaching net-zero will need renewable fuels – direct electrification won’t be sufficient. Existing fossil fuel engines allow for biofuel blends of up to 20% without any modifications, and 100% methanol engines are a proven technology. Making sufficient quantities of clean fuels – without consuming food crops – is the challenge. Gabriel Castellanos and Roland Roesch at IRENA summarise their report “A pathway to decarbonise the shipping sector by 2050” on what needs to be done. In the short term, efficiency (including optimising shipping routes) and advanced biofuels play are role but have limitations. The medium/long term goal should be based on ammonia and methanol, sourced from green hydrogen. That means building capacity for each. The 2050 cost target is $107/MWh to $145/MWh for e-methanol and $67/MWh to $114/MWh for e-ammonia. Cost-competitive scale-up is the main challenge, not least the deployment of renewable energies for the production of green hydrogen.
Between 80% and 90% of international trade by volume is enabled through maritime means, i.e., bulk and container carriers, as well as oil and chemical tankers. Together, these types of vessels account for 20% of the global fleet, but they are responsible for 85% of the net GHG emissions associated with the shipping sector. The international shipping sector is characterised by its high dependency on fossil fuels. If the international shipping sector was a country, it would be the sixth- to seventh-largest CO2 emitter, comparable to Germany’s current CO2 emission levels.
If the global warming is to be limited by 1.5°C, it is critical to decarbonise the shipping sector, the new report – “A pathway to decarbonise the shipping sector by 2050” from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) finds that renewable fuels can contribute at least 70% of the sector’s energy mix in 2050; where green hydrogen is set to be the backbone for the sector’s decarbonisation.




用于航运的可再生燃料:到2050年80%的脱碳途径
国际航运业的排放水平与德国相当。与航空和重型运输一样,实现净零需要可再生燃料——直接电气化是不够的。现有的化石燃料发动机可以在不进行任何修改的情况下混合20%的生物燃料,而100%的甲醇发动机是一项经过验证的技术。在不消耗粮食作物的情况下制造足够数量的清洁燃料是一个挑战。IRENA的Gabriel Castellanos和Roland Roesch总结了他们的报告“2050年航海业脱碳途径”中需要做的事情。在短期内,效率(包括优化航运路线)和先进的生物燃料发挥了作用,但也有局限性。中期/长期目标应该以氨和甲醇为基础,它们来自绿色氢气。这意味着要为每一个国家建设能力。2050年的成本目标是,e-甲醇为107 - 145美元/MWh, e-氨为67 - 114美元/MWh。成本竞争的扩大规模是主要的挑战,尤其是可再生能源生产绿色氢气的部署。
国际贸易总量的80%至90%是通过海运方式实现的,即散货和集装箱船,以及石油和化学品船。这些类型的船舶加起来占全球船队的20%,但它们对与航运部门相关的温室气体净排放负有85%的责任。国际航运业的特点是高度依赖化石燃料。如果国际航运业是一个国家,它将是第六大至第七大二氧化碳排放国,与德国目前的二氧化碳排放水平相当。
如果全球变暖是1.5°C,限制碳排放的关键是运输部门,新报告——“一个通路航运业碳排放到2050年“国际可再生能源机构(IRENA)发现可再生燃料可以提供至少70%的部门在2050年的能源结构;绿色氢将成为该行业脱碳的支柱。



更多信息请点击官方链接:https://energypost.eu/renewable-fuels-for-shipping-an-80-decarbonisation-pathway-to-2050/

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