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推行生产者责任延伸制的必要性
来源:上海沐睿 | 作者:沐睿环境-莉哥 | 发布时间: 2021-08-25 | 414 次浏览 | 分享到:

       生产者责任延伸的思想,最早可追溯到瑞典1975年关于废物循环利用和管理的议案。该议案提出,产品生产前生产者有责任了解当产品废弃后,如何从环境和节约资源的角度,以适当的方式处理废弃产品的问题。生产者责任延伸(Extended Producer Responsibility,以下简称EPR)概念,是1988年由瑞典隆德大学(Lund University)环境经济学家托马斯(Thomas Lindhquist)在给瑞典环境署提交的一份报告中首次提出的,它通过使生产者对产品的整个生命周期,特别是对产品的回收、循环和最终处置负责来实现。托马斯教授的EPR设计了生产者须承担的五个责任:
     1.环境损害责任(Liability):生产者对已经证实的由产品导致的环境损害负责,其范围由法律规定,并且可能包括产品生命周期的各个阶段。
     2.经济责任(Economic Responsibility):生产者为其生产的产品的收集、循环利用或最终处理全部或部分地付费。生产者可以通过某种特定费用的方式来承担经济责任。
    3.物质责任(Physical Responsibility):生产者必须实际地参与处理其产品或其产品引起的影响。这包括:发展必要的技术、建立并运转回收系统以及处理他们的产品。
    4.所有权责任(Ownership):在产品的整个生命周期中,生产者保留产品的所有权,该所有权牵连到产品的环境问题。
    5.信息披露责任(Informative Responsibility):生产者有责任提供有关产品以及产品在其生命周期的不同阶段对环境的影响的相关信息。 
      

     5月26日,工业和信息化部 科技部 财政部 商务部关于印发汽车产品生产者责任延伸试点实施方案的通知,的通知,提出到2023年,形成一批可复制、可推广的汽车生产企业为责任主体的报废汽车回收利用模式,报废汽车再生资源综合利用率达到75%,汽车可回收利用率达到95%,重点部件的再生原料利用比例不低于5%。


更多信息链接:https://www.miit.gov.cn/jgsj/jns/zhlyh/art/2021/art_4ce907c58a414044a4a869a5f21d25af.html 


法国拟推行生产者责任延伸制度促进烟蒂回收

         烟草制造商支付法国烟蒂清理费用政府表示,估计每年1亿欧元减少烟头造成的环境污染的成本将主要由企业而非纳税人承担

        政府宣布,烟草制造商将不得不为烟蒂造成的环境污染买单。生态部长芭芭拉庞皮利告诉RTL,每年约有 230 亿个烟蒂被不当处理。她说,这会导致水污染和对海洋生物的伤害。每个烟蒂可以污染 500 升水,它们可能需要数年时间才能分解,最后往往会被鱼吃掉。Pompili 女士表示,清理行动每年将耗资约 1 亿欧元。为此,将根据“污染者付费”原则成立一个组织,为收集烟蒂、分发烟灰缸和宣传活动捐款 8000 万欧元。Pompili 女士解释说“制造商为产生的废物而不是我们的税款付费”是正常的,她坚持认为成本不会通过包装价格的上涨转嫁给消费者。
       法国的一些城镇已经启动了自己的举措来解决烟头造成的污染问题。春天,Bourgogne-Franche-Comté 的 Montbéliard 在咖啡馆和餐厅等场所推出了袖珍烟灰缸。个人口袋大小的烟灰缸可容纳八个烟蒂,在垃圾桶中清空后可无限次重复使用。今年夏天,Royan 海滨度假胜地也将推出类似的举措。除了袖珍烟灰缸外,还开发了用于海滩的特殊锥形烟灰缸,让它们可以立在沙滩上。教育性烟盒也已生效,鼓励吸烟者通过使用他们的烟头来参与投票。可以使用垃圾桶的一侧或另一侧来处理烟蒂,以回答诸如“您更喜欢冲浪还是趴板冲浪?”之类的问题。
        在法国,每年有 75,000 人死于吸烟,占法国每年死亡人数的 13%。然而,法国国家卫生机构 Santé publique France 指出,吸烟越来越不流行,尤其是在女性中。2019年的统计数据显示,18-75岁的人群中有30.4%是吸烟者,占1000万人。到 2020 年,约有 34.6% 的男性和 26.5% 的女性仍在吸烟。

By Eleanor Fullalove

       Tobacco manufacturers will have to pay for the environmental pollution caused by cigarette butts, the government has announced.Every year, some 23 billion cigarette butts are improperly disposed of, Ecology Minister Barbara Pompili told RTL.It results in water pollution and harm to marine life, she said. Each cigarette butt can pollute 500 litres of water, they can take years to break down and often end up being eaten by fish.

      The clean-up operation will cost about €100million annually, according to Ms Pompili. To this end, an organisation will be created under the ‘polluter pays’ principle to contribute €80million towards the collection of cigarette butts, the distribution of ashtrays and communication initiatives.Explaining that it was normal for “manufacturers to pay for the waste produced, rather than our taxes”, Ms Pompili insisted that the cost would not be passed on to consumers via increases in the price of packs.

Pocket ashtrays given out in French towns

      Some towns in France have been launching their own initiatives to tackle pollution caused by cigarette butts.In the spring, Montbéliard in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté introduced pocket ashtrays at venues such as cafés and restaurants.The personal pocket-sized ashtrays can accommodate eight cigarette butts and can be endlessly reused after they are emptied in the bin.A similar initiative is coming to the seaside resort of Royan this summer. As well as pocket ashtrays, special conical-shaped ashtrays have been developed for use on the beach, allowing them to be stood up in the sand.Educational cigarette bins have also been brought into force, encouraging smokers to engage by using their cigarette ends like voting tokens. Cigarette butts can be disposed of by using one side of the bin or the other in answer to a question like ‘Do you prefer surfing or bodyboarding?’.

Smoking in decline

       Every year in France, there are 75,000 deaths from smoking, accounting for 13% of deaths in France annually.However, national health agency Santé publique France notes that smoking is becoming less popular, especially among women.Statistics for 2019 showed that 30.4% of those aged 18-75 were smokers, accounting for 10 million people. Some 34.6% of men and 26.5% of women were still smoking in 2020.




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来源:https://www.connexionfrance.com/French-news/Tobacco-manufacturers-to-pay-for-cigarette-butt-clean-up-in-France