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德国将在2045年实现碳中和,提前5年
来源:bundesregierung.de | 作者:沐睿环境-莉哥 | 发布时间: 2021-10-11 | 153 次浏览 | 分享到:

We naturally want COP 26 in Glasgow to be a success. Germany will do its part to make this happen. We also all agree, I think, that the world needs it to be a success. And our climate dialogue today and tomorrow is of course dedicated to precisely this goal.
The Petersberg Climate Dialogue has already become a tradition. I launched it in 2010 after the failure of the Copenhagen conference the previous year. We needed to rebuild trust for new negotiations. I believe that the Petersberg Climate Dialogue has proven effective in this regard and has become integral to international climate policy. My thanks naturally go to Svenja Schulze and the Environment Ministry for all of the preparations.
We have come to speak of climate neutrality as a shared global goal. Progress towards this goal depends on two crucial factors: national ambition on the one hand and international solidarity on the other.
I will begin by saying something about national ambition. All states are called upon to develop new nationally determined contributions and long-term strategies. The European Union has already sent out a clear message. By 2030, we want to reduce our CO2 emissions by at least 55 percent as against 1990.
Many other states have also announced that they will be increasing their national contributions to climate change mitigation. For example, President Biden recently introduced a new 2030 target for the US. Boris Johnson has set the United Kingdom an ambitious goal for 2035. Canada and Japan have also defined new goals which make it clear that they are ready to do more. It would be good, if I may be perfectly honest, if we could all agree on comparable figures as a basis for our goals, because we currently have such a confusing array of different years as starting points and target dates that it is impossible to compare them without a conversion table on hand.
In Germany, we have mapped out our route to climate neutrality with the Federal Climate Change Act. We are working hard to implement this act, for example by phasing out coal and further expanding renewables. We plan to continue developing and fleshing out these goals. As Svenja Schulze has already mentioned, the Federal Constitutional Court has issued a ground-breaking ruling which requires us to give greater consideration to intergenerational equity in our climate change mitigation efforts and to map out the path to climate neutrality in greater detail. We will therefore raise our national reduction target for 2030 by ten percent, to 65%, and will aim to be climate neutral as soon as 2045. This means that we will have to modify our sector-specific targets. But we are not contenting ourselves with just an agreement on objectives. Our Climate Change Act stipulates that, if progress is insufficient, an immediate action programme will be initiated to allow us to meet the targets.
In the interests of future generations around the world, it is essential that we act rapidly and resolutely to limit the dramatic effects of global warming. The EU, too, has chosen to use legislation to establish its new climate goal for 2030 and its goal of greenhouse gas neutrality by 2050 as binding benchmarks. The Commission will present proposals for implementation in the summer. We may then have to adjust our national programmes once more to align them with the European Union’s methodology.
I believe carbon pricing to be a particularly suitable steering instrument. The EU emissions trading system has shown that this works in the field of energy. It thus makes sense to expand it to other sectors such as heating and transport. In Germany, we have already done precisely this. Looking at the timescale, we want to enable market mechanisms to have an effect as soon as possible. In my view, it would be highly desirable to have carbon pricing at a global level, too. This would have to be established step by step, of course. I would like to encourage you to promote this market-oriented and thus highly efficient instrument which will help smooth our shared path to climate neutrality. Pricing is, of course, an approach which we can use to give all technologies a chance.
Of course, the starting point for effective national climate change mitigation measures is not the same everywhere; in fact, it varies significantly. But we are reliant on everyone to do their part. That is, we need international solidarity – not only in the reduction of emissions through technology transfer, for example, but in particular when it comes to climate adaptation and resilience. With the global NDC partnership and with InsuResilience, the global partnership for insuring climate risks, Germany has helped launch important initiatives in this field.
Industrialised countries had previously pledged to mobilise an annual sum of 100 billion US dollars from public and private funds up until 2020 to finance climate action. And we had also agreed to extend this target until 2025. However, the latest OECD figures for 2018 show that we must do more if we are to keep our promise.
Germany has gone above and beyond its own promise to double its public funding to four billion euro by 2020; this sum reached over 4.3 billion euro the previous year. We also provide significant funding via development and promotional loans. The total German contribution from all sources – public and private – was almost 7.6 billion euro in 2019, and on a similar level in 2020. I believe this is a fair contribution on the part of Germany.
But we must now also look to the future, because we must continue our international efforts. The need for financing in developing countries in particular is enormous. I thus second what Boris Johnson has just said. At the next COP in Glasgow, we must discuss a new financing target for the period from 2025. The new target should also send out a clear message. Instead of new fossil fuel power plants, renewable energies should be funded – around the world. Germany is prepared to make a fair contribution to a new financing target for the years after 2025, too.
I spoke with Boris Johnson yesterday and we agreed that we want to do everything we can, together, to make progress on this goal and ensure that the COP in Glasgow is a success. This includes private investors around the world investing in climate change mitigation. There is no doubt that significantly more private capital must be mobilised if we are to move closer to climate neutrality. Of course, we also need to see major progress across the different industries, and this progress will primarily be achieved when it becomes very clear that climate change mitigation is financially viable. E-mobility, photovoltaics and green hydrogen are examples of modern technologies which are becoming increasingly significant in this context.
The UK COP Presidency has launched campaigns surrounding these issues. I would like to thank Prime Minister Johnson most sincerely for these efforts. I expressly support your commitment to making climate change mitigation one focus of your G7 presidency. The G7 summit in Cornwall should send out a clear message in favour of protecting the climate and biodiversity. Finally, we also want to make this year’s COP in Kunming a success for biodiversity. One crucial element of this is the protection of our rainforests and oceans, an area where progress must be made. Protecting biodiversity will, not least, help to reduce the likelihood of future pandemics. Germany makes a major contribution to these efforts, providing 500 million euro per year.
It is true that protecting the climate and biodiversity requires a great deal of work and investment. But it is also true that failing to ensure this protection, or sufficient protection, would entail far higher costs – not just financial costs, but those caused by the loss of living space and habitats, essential resources and human lives. We have come together for this 12th Petersberg Climate Dialogue because we are united by the goal of keeping the promises made with the Paris Agreement, and of limiting climate change so that future generations can enjoy a life worth living and the rights and freedoms to choose how they live on our Earth. To reach this goal we must act today, and act ambitiously. At the same time, we must act together and in a spirit of solidarity. Thank you all for doing your part.


我们自然希望格拉斯哥的第26届缔约方大会取得成功。德国将尽其所能实现这一目标。我认为,我们也都同意,世界需要它的成功。我们今天和明天的气候对话当然就是致力于这一目标。
彼得斯堡气候对话已经成为一项传统。2010年,在哥本哈根会议失败后,我启动了它。我们需要为新的谈判重建信任。我认为,彼得斯堡气候对话在这方面是有效的,已成为国际气候政策的组成部分。当然,我要感谢Svenja Schulze和环境部所做的所有准备工作。
我们谈到气候中立是一个共同的全球目标。实现这一目标的进展取决于两个关键因素:一方面是国家雄心,另一方面是国际团结。
我将从国家雄心开始。呼吁所有州制定新的国家自主贡献和长期战略。欧盟已经发出了明确的信息。到2030年,我们希望二氧化碳排放量比1990年至少减少55%。
许多其他州也宣布,他们将增加本国对减缓气候变化的贡献。例如,拜登总统最近为美国提出了新的2030年目标。鲍里斯·约翰逊为英国设定了2035年的宏伟目标。加拿大和日本也制定了新的目标,明确表明它们准备采取更多行动。这将是很好,如果我可以是完全诚实的,如果我们都能同意可比数据作为我们的目标的基础,因为我们现在有这样一个让人困惑的一系列不同年的起点和目标日期是不可能比较没有换算表。
在德国,我们已经通过《联邦气候变化法案》制定了实现气候中立的路线。我们正在努力实施这一法案,例如逐步淘汰煤炭,进一步扩大可再生能源。我们计划继续发展和充实这些目标。正如Svenja Schulze已经提到的,联邦宪法法院已经发布了一项开创性的裁决,要求我们在减缓气候变化的努力中更多地考虑代际公平,并更详细地规划出气候中性的路径。因此,我们将把2030年的国家减排目标提高10%,至65%,并力争最早在2045年实现气候中和。这意味着我们将不得不修改特定行业的目标。但我们不会满足于仅仅就目标达成协议。我们的气候变化法案规定,如果进展不充分,将立即启动行动计划,使我们能够实现这些目标。
为了世界各地后代的利益,我们必须迅速和坚决地采取行动,限制全球变暖的巨大影响。欧盟也选择通过立法来确立其2030年的新气候目标和2050年的温室气体中和目标,作为具有约束力的基准。委员会将在夏季提出执行建议。到那时,我们可能不得不再次调整我们的国家方案,使它们与欧洲联盟的方法保持一致。
我认为碳定价是一个特别合适的指导工具。欧盟的排放交易体系已经表明,这在能源领域是有效的。因此,将其扩展到供热和运输等其他行业是有意义的。在德国,我们已经这样做了。从时间上看,我们希望市场机制能尽快发挥作用。在我看来,在全球范围内制定碳定价也是非常可取的。当然,这必须逐步建立起来。我想鼓励你们推广这一以市场为导向的高效工具,它将有助于我们实现气候中和的共同道路铺平道路。当然,定价是一种我们可以用来给所有技术一个机会的方法。
当然,各国采取有效减缓气候变化措施的起点并不相同;事实上,差别很大。但我们需要每个人都尽自己的一份力。也就是说,我们需要国际团结——例如,不仅在通过技术转让减少排放方面,而且尤其在气候适应和恢复能力方面。通过全球NDC伙伴关系和全球气候风险保险伙伴InsuResilience,德国帮助启动了该领域的重要举措。
工业化国家此前承诺,到2020年,每年从公共和私人资金中筹集1000亿美元,为气候行动提供资金。我们还同意将这一目标延长到2025年。然而,经合组织2018年的最新数据显示,如果我们要信守承诺,就必须采取更多行动。
德国已经超越了自己的承诺,到2020年将公共资金翻一番,达到40亿欧元;这一数字在前一年超过了43亿欧元。我们还通过开发和推广贷款提供大量资金。2019年,德国从所有来源(包括公共和私人)获得的捐款总额接近76亿欧元,2020年也达到了类似水平。我认为德国方面的贡献是公平的。
但是,我们现在还必须展望未来,因为我们必须继续我们的国际努力。发展中国家对资金的需求尤其巨大。因此,我支持鲍里斯·约翰逊刚才说的话。在格拉斯哥举行的下一届缔约方会议上,我们必须讨论从2025年开始的新融资目标。新的目标也应该发出一个明确的信息。应该在全世界资助可再生能源,而不是新建化石燃料发电厂。德国也准备为2025年后的新融资目标作出合理贡献。
昨天,我与鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)进行了交谈,我们一致认为,我们希望尽我们所能共同努力,在这一目标上取得进展,确保在格拉斯哥举行的COP会议取得成功。这包括世界各地的私人投资者投资减缓气候变化。毫无疑问,如果我们要更接近气候中立,就必须动员更多的私人资本。当然,我们也需要看到不同行业的重大进展,而这一进展将主要在气候变化减缓在财政上可行的情况下实现。电动迁移、光伏和绿色氢是现代技术的例子,这些技术在这方面正变得越来越重要。
英国作为缔约方会议主席国,围绕这些问题发起了运动。我衷心感谢约翰逊首相所作的努力。我明确支持你们将减缓气候变化作为七国集团主席工作重点的承诺。在康沃尔举行的七国集团峰会应该发出一个支持保护气候和生物多样性的明确信息。最后,我们还希望今年在昆明举行的气候大会在生物多样性方面取得成功。其中一个关键因素是保护我们的雨林和海洋,这是一个必须取得进展的领域。保护生物多样性不仅有助于降低未来发生大流行病的可能性。德国为这些努力作出了重大贡献,每年提供5亿欧元。
的确,保护气候和生物多样性需要大量的工作和投资。但同样不可否认的是,如果不能确保这种保护或充分的保护,将会带来高得多的成本——不仅是财政成本,还有生活空间和栖息地、基本资源和人类生命损失所造成的成本。这12 Petersberg气候对话我们聚在一起,因为我们是曼联的目标保持巴黎协定的承诺,并限制气候变化,以便将来的人能够享受生活的价值和权利和自由选择如何生活在地球。为了实现这一目标,我们必须今天就行动起来,并且雄心勃勃地行动起来。与此同时,我们必须本着团结一致的精神共同行动。谢谢大家的努力。




更多信息请点击官方链接:https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-en/search/speech-by-federal-chancellor-dr-angela-merkel-at-the-12th-petersberg-climate-dialogue-on-6-may-2021-video-conference--1912118 

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